As the Soviet Union developed according to the policy of Socialism in One Country, so China develops according to its own policy of socialist development: Socialism with Chinese Characteristics. Deng Xiaoping wrote regarding Socialism with Chinese Characteristics—
"What is the ideological line? To adhere to Marxism and to integrate it with Chinese realities... in other words, to seek truth from facts, as advocated by Comrade Mao Zedong, and to uphold his basic ideas."
Like other countries which underwent socialist revolution and construction, China developed their socialist system on a basis which differed from the developed capitalism that Marx and Engels envisioned— in conjunction with the material conditions, circumstances and problems particular to China. The breakthrough of Deng Xiaoping Thought was to put forward the question of the unique characteristics that would enable the prosperous development of Chinese socialism. How would China quickly resolve the principle contradiction of its socialist system, i.e.,— "the [contradiction between the] ever-growing material and cultural needs of the people and backward social production.” How would it resolve the contradictions which would arise during the phase of expanding productive forces? How would it utilize the People's Democratic Dictatorship to build a complete socialist society under the conditions of imperialist encirclement? These questions and more are answered by Socialism with Chinese Characteristics. To gain a better understanding, we will analyze the development of Marxist theory in China and socialist thought within its historical-material context.
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This course provides a study of the method and science of Marxism-Leninism. The materialist dialectical method is the main tool Marxist Leninists use in scientific practice and analysis. It provides us with a theory of the production of knowledge and a method which enables us to distinguish between science and ideology, a stake which is fundamental in the class struggle. Historical materialism is the science of Marxism-Leninism, it is the science of history.
Historical materialism and its method, materialist dialectics, furnishes us with adequate knowledge of social formations, modes of production, their constitution, function, and the forms of transition by which one mode of production transforms into another. The unity of materialist dialectics and historical materialism constitute the theory of Marxism-Leninism in its totality. The study of the materialist dialectical method and historical materialism is vital for all communists, as it allows us to understand the hidden mechanisms of the capitalist mode of production, the dynamics of the class struggle, and the actions required of the proletariat and its class allies in order to abolish capitalism and build socialism.
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